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Coral snake - Wikipedia

Keywords: Elapidae, Thailand, Thai snakes, venomous snakes, viperidae ( cobras, kraits, mambas, coral snakes, Australian species, and sea E-mail: [email protected] Brought Download Date | 1/11/19 PM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds. for coral snake envenomations is the use of heterologous antivenom, and to date, this type In light of the information that coral snake venom can reveal a multiplicity of composition and toxic .. E-mail: [email protected] When it comes to venomous snakes, there are two families These include the Elapidae family (coral snakes), and the Viperidae family.

Some species, like Micrurus surinamensis, are almost entirely aquatic and spend most of their lives in slow-moving bodies of water that have dense vegetation.

Coral snakes feed mostly on smaller snakes, lizards, frogs, nestling birds, small rodents, etc. Like all elapid snakes, coral snakes possess a pair of small hollow fangs to deliver their venom.

6 Venomous Snakes of Florida! Kamp Kenan S2 Episode 17

The fangs are positioned at the front of the mouth. The life span of coral snakes in captivity is about 7 years.

Snake bites are on the rise

Coral snakes are found in scattered localities in the southern coastal plain from North Carolina to Louisiana, including all of Florida. They can be found in pine and scrub oak sandhill habitats in parts of this range but sometimes inhabit hardwood areas and pine flatwoods that undergo seasonal flooding. Its habitat, in Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, and sometimes in Oklahoma due to floods in the Red River, is separated from the eastern coral snake's habitat by the Mississippi River.

The coral snake population is most dense in the southeast United States, but coral snakes have been spotted as far north as Kentucky. It occupies arid and semiarid regions in many different habitat types including thornscrub, desert-scrub, woodland, grassland and farmland. It is found in the plains and lower mountain slopes from sea level to feet m ; often found in rocky areas.

However, relatively few bites are recorded due to their reclusive nature and the fact they generally inhabit sparsely populated areas.

Alabama Father Paralyzed After Venomous Coral Snake Bite: He 'Thought It Was Just a Kingsnake'

According to the American National Institutes of Health, there are an average of 15—25 coral snake bites in the United States each year. In addition, coral snakes have short fangs proteroglyph dentition that cannot penetrate thick leather clothing. Any skin penetration, however, is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention.

We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze—thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to days postimmunization. The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test.


Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds.

A nuestro entender, esta es el primer anti-veneno contra serpiente de coral preparado en aves. Considerable advancement has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of ophidic accidents, motivating transformations in treatment procedures. Latest advances, including the production of new antivenoms using new processes 1 — 419have encouraged developing coral snake antivenoms with attractive protocols. Nearly two hundred species from the Elapidae family are dispersed across the Southeastern and Southwestern United States, as well as all of Mexico, Central America and South America, and are also established in the African, Asian and Oceanic continents 3.

On the American continent, more than species and subspecies have been described, separated into three genera: Leptomicrurus with three species, Micruroides, with one, and Micrurus, with approximately 70 species 21 The production of safe, efficient and reasonably priced antivenoms is a priority. Alternative progress in the therapeutics of coral snake bite victims in Venezuela requires an answer to the production of new animal models, logistical, financial, marketing, delivery and storage difficulties related to the supply of antivenom.

Furthermore, the norms and regulations for physicians to improve antivenom use must also be addressed. Even though coral snake envenomations could be handled using medications that act on presynaptic and postsynaptic receptors, since some patients may only survive under intensive therapy treatment such as respiratory support 23specific treatment with antivenoms continues to be the elected method for treating these incidents, which can efficiently deactivate all systemic activities of the venom.

Nevertheless, there are some collateral effects of antivenom such as anaphylaxis and serum sickness 5. The majority of these alterations seem to be caused by the action of high concentrated proteins, which are not immunoglobulins, but contaminating polyvalent antivenoms.

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However, the benefits of antivenom treatment may be more important than its risks. The specific therapeutics for coral snake envenomations is the use of heterologous antivenom, and to date, this type of antivenom is not available in Venezuela.

In light of the information that coral snake venom can reveal a multiplicity of composition and toxic activities, we have included the most important venom species occurring in Venezuela and United States in the immunization protocol.

At this time, we present a study on the production of a specific coral snake Micrurus antivenom and its purification of immunoglobulins from the egg yolk of immunized hens, with the purpose of providing a more efficient antivenom for therapeutic treatments.

The relevant regulations of Venezuela as well as institutional guidelines, according to protocols approved by the Institute of Anatomy of the Universidad Central de Venezuela, and the norms obtained from the guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals 13 were followed. Coral snakes Micrurus venom Venom from a collection twenty specimens of different Micrurus species from Venezuela and the United States were used in the immunization protocol.

The venom from the U.