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Black history is full of surprises and contradictions, and this is one of the most surprising and seemingly contradictory ones that I have encountered. How did more free blacks end up living in the South? Who They Were and How They Got There To understand how the South created — and acquired — its majority of free black people, you would have to travel back further in time to the Revolutionary War, when natural rights fever and military necessity first, among the British stimulated the first major surge of free blacks in America.
Before then, there were a scant few, Berlin writes inMaryland, the only English colony to keep track, counted 1,; Virginia had about the same in There were other sources besides manumissions formal acts of emancipation by slaveownersto be sure, including an increase in runaways and immigrants. Among the immigrants were free blacks fleeing the West Indies often with their own slaves during the slave revolt against the French in Saint-Dominque, which became the independent Republic of Haiti in With it, the U.
Still another group of free people of color originally from Saint-Dominique emigrated to New Orleans from Cuba inin the upheavals of the Napoleonic wars, doubling the size of the black population there. While the rate of growth among Southern free blacks would slow across nearly every decade leading up to the Civil War the growth rate was a mere 10 percent between andby the South had a free black population that was there to say.
So who were they? They were predominantly female Free blacks also were lighter in color Consequently, there were two broad groups of Southern free blacks, Berlin writes. Not only did the vast majority live in the Upper Southin versus 36, in the Lower South inthey were on average darker-skinned and more rural than their Lower South counterparts.A Conversation On African-American Women Dating Black Men Abroad - The Conversation
By contrast, free blacks in the Lower South were fewer in number, lighter-skinned and more urban, creating a much more pronounced three-caste system and within it various gradations of blackness, including mulattoes those who would be called biracial todayquadroons those with one black grandparent and octoroons those with one black great-grandparent.
Throughout the region, repressive laws helped create the conditions for a vast underclass that for most free blacks meant living along a very thin line between slavery and freedom, debt and dependency, poverty and pride. In fact, many of those same laws would lay the groundwork for what would follow after the Civil War and Reconstruction during the Jim Crow era. By the s, Berlin reveals, only Delaware, Missouri and Arkansas still allowed legal manumission of free blacks, and Arkansas, on the eve of secession, threatened its small population of free blacks with an impossible choice: Add to them those who passed as white or were kidnapped back into bondage, and it begins to make even the clearest of census numbers seem shaky.
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