Carbon dating puma punku reconstruction

The Non-Mystery of Pumapunku

carbon dating puma punku reconstruction

Now known as the Pumapunku—"Door of the Jaguar" in the Quechua Construction began around CE and proceeded off and on. Though some claim the stone structures at Pumapunku were alien, archaeologists . have dated Pumapunku to 15, years, apparently based on this alone. The temple's origin is a mystery, but based on carbon dating of organic material The most intriguing thing about Puma punku is the stonework. describes the fantastic engineering involved in the temple's construction.

Located in modern-day Bolivia, Puma Punku is part of an even larger archaeological complex known as Tiahuanaco. This mysterious ancient site remains as one of the most enigmatic archaeological complexes ever discovered on the planet. Based on recent carbon dating tests performed on organic material on the site, researchers estimate that this fascinating ancient complex was erected by the ancient Tiahuanaco people around and AD —predating the famous Inca civilization.

The stonework found at Puma Punku is beyond fascinating. The andesite stones used in the construction process of this megalithic site were cut with such precision that they fit together perfectly, and are interlocked with each other without the use of mortar. Not even a sheet of paper can fit between their thousand-year-old stones. But how was this possible thousands of years ago? Even before the Inca, which are known to have been very skilled engineers?

Puma Punku was created by an ancient culture which did not have a writing system and did not know about the wheel. So how was this possible? This terrace is paved with multiple enormous stone blocks. The largest of these stone blocks is 7. The second largest stone block found within the Puma punka is 7.

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Its weight has been estimated to be A complex system of channels conducted rainwater from a sunken court on the summit into the interior of the pyramid, threading it from one terrace to the next.

The side walls of the water channels in the Akapana and at Puma Punku are built with upright stone slabs held together with I-shaped clamps. Protzen thinks this was to hold the slabs in the proper alignment.

Clamps also once pieced together the enormous sandstone slabs used in the construction of the four platforms at Puma Punku. A unique feature at Puma Punku is the use of recessed clamping. A spectrographic analysis of a surviving clamp showed that it was made of an unusual alloy — Other examples of 'Brick Ties' can be seen in the floor at Puma-punka.

carbon dating puma punku reconstruction

It is now believed that theses 'Ties' were made by pouring molten metal into the prepared holes. A portable smelter operating at extremely high temperatures would have been required for this purpose. The I-shaped architectural cramps, which are composed of a unique copper-arsenic-nickel bronze alloy were used on a section of canal found at the base of the Akapana pyramid at Tiwanaku.

These cramps were used to hold the blocks comprising the walls and bottom of stone-line canals that drain sunken courts.

The unsolved mystery of the ancient futuristic city of Puma Punku | Mysterious Earth

I-cramps of unknown composition were used to hold together the massive slabs that formed Puma punku's four large platforms. In the south canal of the Puma punku, the I-shaped cramps were cast in place. In sharp contrast, the cramps used at the Akapana canal were fashioned by the cold hammering of copper-arsenic-nickel bronze ingots. The Inca themselves denied building the Tiahuanacan complex. By alternating layers of sand from the interior and layers of composite from the exterior, the fills would overlap each other at the joints, essentially grading the contact points to create a sturdy base.

These I-shaped cramps were also used on a section of canal found at the base of the Akapana pyramid at Tiwanaku. These cramps were used to hold the blocks comprising the walls and bottom of stone-lined canals that drain sunken courts. I-cramps of unknown composition were used to hold together the massive slabs that formed Pumapunku's four large platforms. In the south canal of the Pumapunku, the I-shaped cramps were cast in place.

carbon dating puma punku reconstruction

In sharp contrast, the cramps used at the Akapana canal were fashioned by the cold hammering of copper-arsenic-nickel bronze ingots. This area might have been viewed as the center of the Andean world, attracting pilgrims from far away to marvel in its beauty.

Puma Punku: an impossible structure?

These structures transformed the local landscape; Pumapunku was purposely integrated with Illimani mountain, a sacred peak that the Tiwanaku possibly believed to be home to the spirits of their dead. This area was believed to have existed between heaven and Earth. The spiritual significance and the sense of wonder would have been amplified into a "mind-altering and life-changing experience" [14] through the use of hallucinogenic plants.

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