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Oct 6, NERVE, InterPLAY, and Design-Based Research: Advancing Experiential Learning and the Design of Virtual Patient Simulation. Authors. Teaching Technology Speed Dating: Finding Digital Tools to Use in Teaching. curriculum design and development, or learning technologies research are invited to join. experiential learning; critical thinking; simulations; digital tools. On behalf of: Association for Business Simulation & Experiential Learning dating back to the first ABSEL conference in Oklahoma City in ABSEL, as its .. Simulation & Gaming: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 28(3), Dube, L .
In the geosciences, experiential learning and problem solving are best delivered through field experiences, which include making observations and orienting oneself spatially within landscapes Orion and Hofstein, ; Tal, ; Fuller, ; Bowen and Roth-Wolff, ; Simmons et al. Field excursions provide students with opportunities to hone observational and critical-thinking skills by distinguishing features amid visual complexity Kastens et al. For geoscience, field trips provide a primary map-reading orienteering and kinesthetic experience, analogous to the role of laboratory experiments in physics and chemistry.
Some students struggle to find geologic features being pointed out in a natural setting and may not ask for help in doing so. Further, the best sites may be too remote, are unrealistic for an online class, or prohibitive for persons with disabilities who have limited access to rough terrain.
A solution for bringing experiential, kinesthetic field trips to a broader audience lies in ongoing advances in mobile communication and augmented reality AR technologies. The experiential gaming model includes idea generation, experiences, and challenges that generate new ideas Kiili, There have been increasing reports of VFTs being used in a variety of college courses, including biology, medicine, engineering, geography, and geology e.
Results from those studies indicate that students enjoy using the VFTs, and researchers see gains in interest in the material through the interactivity and immersive experience as compared to traditional learning Spicer and Stratford, ; Stumpf et al.
AR usage in medical, engineering, and mathematics education has resulted in similar findings e. Smartphone and tablet computer technologies are increasingly ubiquitous among college students Dahlstrom and Bichsel, ; Anderson,and they have global positioning system GPS technology built in for spatial orientation and navigation.
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This was most recently demonstrated by a hugely popular app that takes advantage of spatial orientation and navigation: However, the question remains: Do virtual or AR field experiences actually improve geoscience learning? This research aims to determine the impact of AR field trips on student learning of geoscience concepts in introductory classes in a variety of postsecondary institutions and environments. The Grand Canyon AR field trip modules were developed, tested, and made freely accessible to students and faculty of diverse backgrounds and physical abilities.
They were designed to be easily incorporated into higher education programs and curricula at institutions globally.
Specific research questions for this study were: The location-based app development platform GeoBob http: The modules require the students to physically navigate a Grand Canyon landscape that is scaled down to a m-long playing field.
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The geographic location of the player does not matter; however, since GPS is integrated into the application, the module must be played outside. The design takes advantage of the benefits of games that provide immersion-in-context, rewards for correctness, and immediate feedback in response to student interaction Fig. These interactive features of the AR field trips mirror the experiential gaming model described by Kiiliwith the experience component being most beneficial when the game provides clear goals and appropriate feedback.
Studies have shown that these gaming features contribute to increased student engagement through greater self-confidence and self-efficacy Mayo, ; Bursztyn et al.
The three AR field trip modules geologic time, geologic structures, and hydrologic processes cover key curriculum concepts that can easily be addressed with iconic Grand Canyon features. The themes of geologic time, geologic structures, and hydrologic processes were selected for their universality in introductory geoscience courses Bursztyn et al. A workshop with collaborating geology and education faculty was held to determine specific content within the themes to be included in the AR field trips.
This collaboration resulted in the inclusion of the following constructs: All three modules use the same base map of Grand Canyon for navigation between stops, and each module begins at the traditional rafting trip launch of Lees Ferry and has 10 different field trip stops that represent outstanding real-world examples of curriculum content. The field trip stops appear in sequence after a multiple-choice question and interactive touchscreen task have been answered correctly Bursztyn et al.
Points are allocated to each question based on the number of attempts, and incorrect answers trigger explanations of the answer selected, so that the student can immediately know why the answer they chose was not correct Fig.
Students must physically navigate to each new location Fig. Geologic Structures, and GCX: The diverse student population included STEM majors, nonmajors fulfilling their general education science requirement, community college students, large public university students, and private liberal arts college students.
We classified these groups of students as coming from institutions that were either teaching-focused TFteaching-research split TRor research-focused RF; see Supplemental Table 1 1.
Typical enrollment in these introductory geoscience courses was dependent on the institution and ranged from 20 to students. Control groups came from the participating institutions with the largest student enrollments, which included the research-focus RF and teaching-research split TR schools. Control groups completed the same pre- and posttests; however, participants in control groups experienced traditional curriculum instead of the AR field trips.
All of the classes that participated in this study were traditional lecture-based courses with accompanying laboratories. Part or all of the traditional laboratories were replaced with AR field trips for the experimental group. Assessment Instruments Evaluation instruments encompassing interest in the geosciences and understanding of introductory-level geoscience concepts, as well as a demographics survey, were used at the beginning of the semester.
The same content-specific assessments were then administered within two weeks after each intervention was complete. Assessment results were analyzed and compared across demographic groups, in the context of pre-intervention interest, and by institution.
These assessment resources have been used in other geoscience education research studies Libarkin and Anderson, ; McConnell et al. DLESE is a comprehensive online source for geoscience education that contains a collection of pedagogically sound, technologically robust, and scientifically accurate resources, including multiple-choice assessment questions, about the Earth system.
ConcepTests and the GCI are conceptual multiple-choice questions that focus on a single concept, are clearly worded, are intermediate in difficulty, and have response sets that fit into the same category e. Our collaborating instructors vetted the questions from these sources and agreed upon the final 10 selected to assess each module theme based on those questions covering fundamental curriculum concepts.
For geologic structures 0. However, assessing that range remains important given the nature of introductory geology courses. To examine validity, an exploratory factor analysis of each measure was considered Stevens, In the three cases, all 10 variables pre- and posttest questions were loaded onto a single factor with similarly ranging factor loadings. Geologic time had factor loadings ranging from 0.
For geologic structures, factor loadings ranged from 0. Given the number of observations, range of factor loadings, and single factor solutions, the pre- and posttest questions appear to have been measuring the same construct Stevens, Coupled with item review from content experts, the overall validity is considered strong.
In the case of hydrologic processes, which had an especially diverse set of topics, the factor analysis suggested dropping four items. Twenty-First Century Education and Training: Implications for Quality Assurance. The Internet and Higher Education. Retrieved May 23,http: Paper for workshop at Tarragona, Spain.
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Experiential learning: What’s missing in most change programs
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